Yakutia, Russian Federationp>Project Director: Nickolay Lyutomskiy,Project Architects: Julia Bogaevskaya, Eugenia Kopp, Gregory Sandomirsky, and Mikhail Shishin Contributing Architects: Ivan Dragan, Olga Melnik, and Elena Tsyrenova
Eco-City 2020: Revitalizing the industrial zone of Mirniy in Eastern Siberia, Russia. The challenges facing the city of Mirniy and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in general, are mainly due to geographical location. The climate of this permafrost region is continental with long and severe winters (6-7 months), short and hot summers and short-term transition periods. The average daily temperature stays above zero degrees Centigrade about 220 days a year. The coldest month is January with an average maximum temperature of -35° and an absolute minimum of -62°C. The hottest month is July, with average daily temperatures of 28-30°and an absolute maximum of + 36°C. The amplitude of the absolute temperature is 99°C, and the amplitude of daily temperature reaches 40°C. These conditions can be considered extreme for humans. The region is also experiencing environmental problems due to the excavation of the "Mir" quarry. The problems include the threat of landslides and the flooding with ground water. The excavation has left a giant crater nearly a kilometer in diameter and with a depth of 550 meters in permafrost. In an effort to address these issues proactively we are submitting our proposal to create a new type of urban development using the excavation pit at the quarry site. The title of the project is Eco-City 2020. Using current scientific and technological knowledge, we plan to turn the giant crater into "Eco-City," a garden city that will attract Russian residents as well as international tourists to Eastern Siberia. We propose to cover the quarry with a translucent dome. Due to the positive temperature of the earth, the newly formed climate inside the dome will be milder than the climate outside. According to our proposal, space inside the dome will be divided into three levels. The lower level will be a so-called "vertical farm" for growing agricultural products. The middle level will be used to cultivate a wooded park for purifying the air. The upper level will be the locale of the city itself, and will include residential, administrative and community buildings and facilities. By utilizing the difference in cold and warm air pressure, the dome-space will be ventilated naturally, as in a traditional Russian cellar. This solution permits the development of a town without heat-protecting enclosing structures, as their function will be performed by the walls of the crater. The overall energy efficiency of the project makes it cost effective. The kimberlite pipe "Mir" (which is a primary diamond deposit) is a laterally oval pit about 530 meters deep. Its lateral dimensions are 1,150 by 995 meters at the surface and 150 by 300 meters at the bottom. The absolute elevation of the surface varies from +328 to +339 meters above sea level, and the absolute elevation at the bottom is -190 meters. Ground water is encountered in the carbonate marly rocks and kimberlites at depths between 280 meters from the surface (absolute elevation 48 meters) and 525 meters (absolute elevation -197 meters).